作者:ANKARA和 ISTANBUL 时间:2012-5-19

IN THE spring of 1887 a Lebanese villager named Mohammed Sherif discovered a well near Sidon that led to two underground chambers. These turned out to be a royal tomb containing 18 magnificent marble sarcophagi dating back to the fifth century BC. The Ottoman sultan, Abdul Hamid II, ordered the sarcophagi exhumed, placed on rails and carried down to the Mediterranean coast, where they were sent by ship to Istanbul. The largest sarcophagus was believed to contain the remains of Alexander the Great. The coffin is not Turkish and Sidon is now in Lebanon, but the sarcophagus is regarded as Istanbul’s grandest treasure, as important to the archaeology museum there as the “Mona Lisa” is to the Louvre.

1887年春天,一位黎巴嫩村民发现了通往地下密室的一口井,密室中保存着公元前5世纪的18口大理石棺。土耳其苏丹曾将这些石棺经海路运回伊斯塔布尔。这石棺不是土耳其的,且西顿如今属于黎巴嫩,但它被认为是伊斯坦布尔最大的宝藏,对于考古博物馆来说就如“蒙娜丽莎”对卢浮宫那么重要。

The mildly Islamist government of Recep Tayyip Erdogan, led by the Justice and Development (AK) party, likes to think of itself as the heir of the Ottoman sultans. The Turkish authorities have recently launched a wave of cultural expansionism, building new museums, repairing Ottoman remains, licensing fresh archaeological excavations and spending more on the arts. A grand museum in the capital, Ankara, is due to open in time for the centenary of the Turkish republic in 2023. “It will be the biggest museum in Turkey, one of the largest in Europe; an encyclopedic museum like the Metropolitan or the British Museum (BM),” boasts an aide to Ertugrul Gunay, the culture and tourism minister. “It’s his baby, his most precious project.”

AK党领导的伊斯兰政府自认为是土耳其苏丹的继承人。土耳其政府最近掀起了文化扩张浪潮并作出了一系列举措,还在首府安卡拉建造了一个大博物馆预计于2023年投入使用。长居纳伊吹嘘说:“这将是土耳其乃至欧洲最大的一个博物馆,就如同纽约大都会博物馆或大英博物馆那样的百科博物馆。这是土耳其的宝贝计划。”

Turkey’s cultural plans at home are coupled with an unprecedentedly bold campaign to bring back treasures that it believes were stolen, which now sit in Western museums. These plans enjoy political support across the spectrum and the backing of all Turkey’s museum directors. The campaign targets many more obxts and museums than the government has so far let on. “We are not waging a battle,” says Mr Gunay. “But this is definitely a struggle in the field of culture. And we are determined to boost our efforts in a more determined and more persistent way.”

土耳其文化野心膨胀,想要收回现今保存在西方博物馆的文物并设定了许多目标。这个计划得到国内所有博物馆馆长的支持。Gunay说:“我们并不是在发动战争。但这肯定是一场文化斗争。为此我们将竭尽全力,坚定不移。”

The Turkish authorities are using a mix of entreaty and threats to ensure they get what they want. They are refusing to lend treasures abroad, dragging their feet on licensing foreign archaeological digs and launching public campaigns they hope will shame Western museums. Curators in other countries are alarmed at what they see as growing aggression. A leading museum director even described the campaign as “blackmail”. So what chance has Turkey of winning this new culture war?

土耳其正用各种威逼利诱手段取得自己想要的东西,他们拒绝使宝藏流失海外。其他国家的馆长受到攻击性质的警告,有位馆长甚至认为这个计划是“勒索”。土耳其在这场文化战争中会赢吗?

At the crossroads of the ancient world, drawing Roman armies from the west and Persian conquerors from the east, Turkey—especially the region of Anatolia—has long been a rich seam of knowledge and treasure from antiquity. In the 19th century teams of European scholars travelled there in search of archaeological remains. Among the most successful was a German unit led by Carl Humann. Armed with a firman, or Ottoman permit, and financed by a group of rich backers in Berlin, Humann and his team, in 1878, began excavating a site in Bergama, near the modern city of Izmir on the Aegean coast of western Turkey.

土耳其位于古代东西方的十字路口,蕴藏着丰富的文化宝藏。Carl Humann带领的德国考古队于1878年开始在Bergama遗址挖掘。

Humann’s most important discovery was the altar of Zeus, which dates from the second century BC. Its dramatic frieze depicting the battle between the giants and the Olympian gods makes it one of the most distinctive works from the classical world. With the sultan’s permission, the altar was sent to Germany and became the centrepiece of the Pergamon museum in Berlin. Meanwhile, German archaeologists continued to work on the site; today, the ancient city of Pergamon is the second oldest ongoing archaeological dig in the world. German excavations are still the most important of the foreign digs in Turkey, and for decades Turkish archaeologists have been educated in Berlin and other German cities, their studies subsidised by German government grants.

他们最重要的发现是公元前2世纪的宙斯祭台。经苏丹允许,该文物已运往德国,是柏林Pergamon博物馆的重头展品,Pergamon是世界第二最古老的考古发掘地。德国的考古发现是土耳其最重要的外国考古发现。几十年来,土耳其考古学家在德国学习,并得到德国政府资助。

Archaeological teams like Humann’s were soon followed by scholars from Britain and France, and into the 20th century from Italy, Japan and America. Some paid for their projects by selling a portion of their finds to Western collectors who were becoming increasingly enamoured of all things à la Turque. Others removed treasures they believed might be at risk from war and insurrection, and gave them to the new European museums. Foreign scholars saved a considerable number of Turkish artefacts from being commercially looted or destroyed by invading armies. This is rarely mentioned in Turkey’s discussions about its archaeological past.

随后英法也派遣了考古队,20世纪又有国家也派遣了考古队。这些考古发现因各种原因流入西方。外国学者拯救了一大批土耳其文物使其免遭洗劫和破坏,这在土耳其考古史中很少提及。

The precise way in which obxts were acquired has kept on changing. Some scholars had formal permission from the Ottoman authorities to take their treasures back to Europe; others were motivated by a wish to preserve and protect and did not bother with obtaining proper permissions or establishing a full and accurate provenance for an obxt. Looters robbed graves and helped themselves.

土耳其文物以各种方式流入了外国人手中。一些学者得到苏丹批准,其他一些人只是想收藏文物,入侵者肆意抢掠。

Use of force

使用武力

Western museums house tens of thousands of obxts from Turkey. Most of these were given or acquired without full documentation. Though Turkey passed a law in 1884 (upxed in 1906) stating that all antiquities were the property of the state and could not be taken out of the country, this was only loosely enforced. For most of the 20th century Turkish authorities were happy to lend their treasures for foreign exhibitions and ignored the provenance of most pieces in Western collections. Today, however, the government argues that any obxt without the correct permissions or with gaps in its provenance has been stolen and so belongs to Turkey.

西方博物馆有成千上万件土耳其文物,并有法律保护国家财产不容夺走。与20世纪时土耳其乐于将其文物送给西方展览不同,如今,土耳其认为所有未经正式批准运走的文物皆为窃取本国财产。

Growing economic power and stalled talks over EU membership make many Turks feel that it is time to turn their backs on the West. Amid the turmoil of the Arab spring Turkey believes it can become the leader of the region. “A new Middle East is about to be born,” Ahmet Davutoglu, the foreign minister, told parliament last month. “We will be the owner, pioneer and the servant of this new Middle East.”

欧盟成员国日益强大的经济和多次会谈使土耳其人认为是时候对抗西方了。土耳其自认为是阿拉伯地区之首。外交部长艾哈迈德·达武特奥卢对议会说:“一个新中东将诞生。我们将成为新中东的主人,先锋和仆人。”

Turkey has been inspired by the success of Italy and Greece in confronting the illicit trade in classical antiquities. Officials also cite the tough stance taken by Zahi Hawass, a colourful former Egyptian minister, against museums with dodgy holdings. “We will make life miserable for museums that refuse to repatriate,” he pronounced at an international 2010 conference in Cairo about looted artefacts.

土耳其在反抗意大利与希腊非法买卖文物中取得胜利,并受到鼓舞。埃及前外长曾在2010年国际议会上说:“我们不会轻易放过那些拒绝送还文物的博物馆。”

Turkey has been emboldened by two important successes. Last September the Boston Museum of Fine Arts bowed to public pressure and returned the top half of an 1,800-year-old statue called “Weary Herakles”, which came from southern Turkey. Left to the museum by an American couple, its documented provenance went back no more than 30 years, which suggests it was looted, probably in the late 1970s. Mr Erdogan himself brought this trophy back to Turkey, reuniting the head and torso with the statue’s bottom half.

土耳其在两次胜利中受到鼓舞。去年九月波士顿博物馆迫于公众压力返还了一件名为“Weary Herakles”的有1800历史的雕像。

Mr Gunay also forced the German government to return a massive sphinx (pictured) that had been removed in 1917 from Hattusa, the Bronze-Age capital of the Hittite empire. The sphinx is one of a pair. The first was sent back to Turkey in 1924. Its twin had long been part of the permanent display at the Pergamon museum in Berlin. Germany maintained it had obtained the sphinx legally, whereas Turkish authorities argued that it had merely been sent to Germany for repair. Documentation about the sphinxes was destroyed in bombing raids on Berlin in the second world war.

Gunay还强迫德国政府返还1917年从Hattusa拿走的巨大的狮身人面像壁画。德国认为他们是合法得到这件文物的。但土耳其坚持认为这件文物送去德国仅为了修复。有关这些壁画的记录也在二战中被破坏了。

Early last year Turkey stepped up the pressure, indicating that it would not renew the licences of the German archaeology institute, the biggest foreign group working in Turkey, unless the sphinx was sent home. In May 2011 German and Turkish culture officials signed an agreement to return the sphinx as part of a wider accord on training curators, exchanging research and enabling loans of Turkish obxts. But German curators now complain that as soon as the sphinx went back to Turkey the rest of the agreement was quietly shelved.

去年上半年土耳其继续施压,如果德国不返还壁画,将否认其考古队在土耳其的合法研究。2011年5月两国就借用文物作展览达成协议。但德国抱怨壁画一被送回,土耳其就单方撕毁协议。

The Turkish authorities then turned their attention to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In September 2011 a delegation led by Murat Suslu, the director-general for cultural heritage and museums, flew to New York to discuss loans for a 2014 exhibition. Mr Suslu, who has a reputation as a table-thumper, opened the meeting with a declaration of intent. Before any further loans could be discussed, he wanted information about 18 works in the Met’s collection. “It certainly came as a surprise to us,” says the Met’s director, Thomas Campbell, “especially in light of the collaborative spirit we have always enjoyed with our peer institutions in Turkey.”

土耳其又将注意转向纽约大都会博物馆。2011年九月Murat Suslu率代表团飞往纽约讨论为2014年展览借用文物的事。他首先问的就是馆内的18件土耳其文物,馆长Thomas Campbell说:“这让我们很惊讶,尤其是我们对土耳其文物一直很重视。”

Within weeks, the focus was on the BM. The Topkapi Museum had agreed to an important loan for an exhibition about the Haj that the BM was planning for January 2012. The 35 pieces under discussion had been removed from Mecca by the Ottoman authorities in the 19th century. At the last moment, Mr Suslu and Mr Gunay refused to allow the loan to go ahead on the grounds that the BM had a stone tablet dating from the first century BC, known as the Samsat Stele, that originally came from Turkey. The stele had been in the BM’s collection for almost 90 years (and had been exhibited, without complaint, at a Tokyo exhibition in 2005 alongside loans from the Topkapi). The BM says that the stele entered its collection in 1927, nine years after the collapse of the Ottoman empire, and it had been acquired in Syria, not in Turkey. The Turks were unimpressed. “The British Museum has no sense of joint venture,” says Ilber Ortayli, head of the Topkapi. “They were completely unco-operative.”

几个星期以来,大英博物馆是世人眼中的焦点。Topkapi博物馆同意借文物给大英博物馆2012年1月的展览会,但在最后一刻双方因对一件文物归属权起了争执,协议破裂。Topkapi博物馆馆长Ilber Ortayli认为大英博物馆根本没有诚意合作。

Shock, not awe

震惊,不是敬畏

Turkey has many other museums in its sights. A list of artworks being sought abroad indicates the culture ministry has made similar demands of the Louvre, the Pergamon, London’s Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A), the Gulbenkian Museum in Lisbon, the Davids Samling Museum in Denmark, the Dumbarton Oaks Museum in Washington, DC, the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Getty. It has also claimed stolen antiquities that have been seized by police in Frankfurt, Florence, Bulgaria, Switzerland and Scotland.

土耳其将目光对准许多其他重要的博物馆。文化部要找回许多遗失海外的艺术品,馆藏地包括罗浮宫,Pergamon,伦敦V&A博物馆等;还有被窃取的古文物,馆藏地有法兰克福,佛罗伦萨,保加利亚博物馆等。

Museum directors have reacted with varying degrees of shock. Some have instructed lawyers; others, such as the V&A, are hoping that a “long-term” loan of the contested obxt will satisfy the demands from Ankara. (Mr Gunay says only an “indefinite” loan will suffice.) Still more are prevaricating, hoping that the authorities will lose interest. This is unlikely.

各国馆长们都感到震惊。他们采取各种办法解决问题;还有更多的人对此进行敷衍,希望土耳其渐渐会失去兴趣,但这不可能。

Turkey is convinced of the justice of its quest. Moreover the culture ministry lumps together obxts that were smuggled out of the country illegally with those that were removed—perhaps legally to a place of greater safety, but not provably so—in an era when ownership was judged in a looser way. For Turkey, all of these obxts were stolen. It is determined to get them back.

土耳其认为他们的要求是公正的。而且,文化部将走私的文物与合法送出去的文物混为一谈。对土耳其来说,这些都是被偷走的,誓要取回。

Mr Gunay’s ministry is beefing up its anti-smuggling and intelligence bureau, and will soon add criminal and legal units to its task force. Easy foreign travel, communication and technology have all helped the restitution campaign. Turkish émigrés and Turks travelling abroad have helped to identify obxts in foreign museums. Online museum inventories, with details of acquisition and provenance, are another rich source of information. The ministry is also working with the American group behind WikiLoot, a not-yet-launched effort to use crowd-sourcing to combat the illicit antiquities trade.

Gunay将加强反走私情报局的力量,给刑法部派遣特别小组。便捷的交通与科技为返还文物计划提供了便利。文化部还与美国合作打击非法文物交易。

Turkish self-justification is as romantic as it is defiant. Asked about the return of the sphinx of Hattusa, which he personally oversaw, Mr Gunay explained that it went to a museum in Corum, “the very homeland of the sphinx”. He added, “I wholeheartedly believe that each and every antiquity in any part of the world should eventually go back to its homeland. Even if these obxts are made of stone, just as people have souls, so do animals, plants and monuments. Taking a monument away destabilises the world and is disrespectful to history.”

土耳其不计其它地合法化自己的行为。Gunay认为世界各地的文物都应回归祖国。夺走纪念物就是破坏世界稳定,不尊重历史。

These arguments are sextive. Turkish officials refuse to concede that Turkey itself, over centuries of domination, forcibly removed hundreds of obxts from their homelands. Asked whether Alexander’s sarcophagus would be returned to Lebanon, Mr Gunay and his interpreter simply ignore the question. The Turks are too determined to depict themselves as victims of cultural oppression to accept that foreign museums and archaeologists have also played a part in saving their treasures.

他的这些观点具有双重标准。土耳其政府不承认自己从别国夺走了上百件文物。他们只认为自己是文化侵略的受害者,不承认外国博物馆和考古学家保护了他们的文物。

The result is an impasse. Foreign museum directors wish to keep ties with Turkish museums, but if all obxts from antiquity were to be repatriated to their land of origin, as Mr Gunay suggests, what justification is there for institutions such as the Met, the Louvre and the BM? Why, for example, should the BM retain the Parthenon marbles in London? The carvings were acquired by Lord Elgin when Greece was part of the Ottoman empire. Lord Elgin had obtained a firman, or Ottoman permission from the local authorities, but only after the payment of significant bribes. Does that make acquisitions illegal?

这个文化返还计划陷入了僵局。外国博物馆馆长希望与土耳其博物馆维持关系。但若所有文物被返回,这对纽约博物馆、卢浮宫和大英博物馆公平吗?因为有些文物是得到批准或付了巨款带走的,这样得到的文物算合法吗?

Turkey’s campaign has strong support at home. But counting any obxt acquired without a distinct contract as stolen should alarm museums everywhere.

土耳其取回文物计划得到国内各界的强烈支持。但如果将任何没有明确协议所得的文物看作是偷窃就会使所有博物馆陷入恐慌。