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6 Habits of Super Learners Learn any skill deeply and quickly

标题:超级学习者的6个习惯:快速深入地学习任何技能

Becoming a super learner is one of the most important skills you need to succeed in the 21st century. In the age technological change, staying ahead depends on continual self-education — a lifelong mastery of new models, skills and ideas.

成为一个超级学习者是你在21世纪取得成功所需要的最重要的技能之一,在科技日新月异的时代,保持领先取决于持续的自我教育——终生掌握新的模式、技能和思想。

In a world that’s changing fast, the ability to learn a new skill as fast as possible is quickly becoming a necessity. The good news is, you don’t need a natural gift to be better at learning something new even when you have a full-time career.

在一个瞬息万变的世界里,尽可能快地学习一门新技能的能力很快就成为一种必要,好消息是,即使你有一份全职工作,你也不需要天赋异禀才能学习到新的东西。

Many polymaths (people who have excelled in diverse pursuits) — including Charles Darwin, Leonardo da Vinci and the Nobel prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman — claimed not to have exceptional natural intelligence.

许多博学的人 ( 擅长各种各样的研究 ) ,包括查尔斯达尔文、列奥纳多 · 达芬奇和诺贝尔物理学奖获得者理查德 · 费曼,都声称自己没有非凡的天生智慧。

We all have enough brainpower to master a new discipline — we use the right tools, approaches, or apply what we learn correctly. Almost anyone can learn anything — with the right technique.

我们都有足够的脑力去掌握一门新的学科——只要我们正确的使用工具、方法,或者正确地应用我们所学到的东西,掌握正确的技巧,几乎每个人都能学到任何东西。

Better learning approaches can make the process enjoyable. The key to rapid skill acquisition isn’t complicated. If you aim to learn a new skill to improve your career this year, some of these habits can be useful for you.

更好的学习方法可以让学习过程变得有趣,快速掌握技能的关键并不复杂,如果你今年的目标是学习一项新技能来改善你的职业生涯,这些习惯中的一些对你是有用的。



Elon Musk grew up reading two books a day, according to his brother. Bill Gates reads 50 books per year. Mark Zuckerberg reads at least one book every two weeks. Warren Buffett spends five to six hours per day reading five newspapers and 500 pages of corporate reports.

据埃隆 · 马斯克的哥哥说,埃隆 · 马斯克从小每天读两本书,比尔 · 盖茨每年读50本书,马克 · 扎克伯格每两周至少读一本书,沃伦 巴菲特每天花5至6个小时阅读5份报纸和500页企业报告。

In a world where information is the new currency, reading is the best source of continuous learning, knowledge and acquiring more of that currency.

在一个信息成为新货币的世界里,阅读是持续学习、获得知识以及获得更多这种新“货币”的最佳来源。

2. Super learners view learning as a process

2、超级学习者视学习为一个过程

Learning is a journey, a discovery of new knowledge, not a destination.
It’s an enjoyable lifelong process — a self-directed and self-paced journey of discovery. Understanding any topic, idea or new mindset requires not only keen observation but more fundamentally, the sustained curiosity.

学习是一段旅程,一段新知识的发现之旅,而不是目的地。
这是一个愉快的终身过程ーー一个自我导向和自我节奏的发现之旅,理解任何话题、想法或新的心态,不仅需要敏锐的观察力,更重要的是,需要持续的好奇心。

“A learning journey is a curated collection of learning assets, both formal and informal, that can be used to acquire skills for a specific role and/or technology area,” writes Sonia Malik of IBM.

IBM 的索尼娅 · 马利克说: “ 学习之旅是正式和非正式的学习资源的整合,可用于获取特定角色和 / 或技术领域的技能。”

Learning is an investment that usually pays for itself in increased earnings. More than ever, learning is for life if you want to stay relevant, indispensable and thrive in the changing world of work.

学习是一种投资,通常可以从增加的收入中获得回报,与以往任何时候相比,如果你想在不断变化的工作世界中保持不落后、或者让自己变得不可或缺并茁壮成长,那么学习就是终身学习。

Super learners value the process. They don’t have an end goal, they seek consistent improvement. They keep mastering new principles, processes, worldviews, thinking models, etc. The “ongoing, voluntary, and self-motivated” pursuit of knowledge is important for their maturity.

超级学习者重视这个过程,他们没有最终目标,他们寻求持续的进步,他们不断掌握新的原则、过程、世界观、思维模式等等,对知识的“持续的、自愿的、自我激励的”追求对他们的成熟很重要。

3. They adopt a growth mindset

3、超级学习者有着成长心态

You can’t go wrong cultivating a growth mindset — a learning theory developed by Dr Carol Dweck that revolves around the belief that you can improve intelligence, ability and performance.

培养一种成长心态是不会错的——这是卡罗尔 · 德韦克博士提出的一种学习理论,围绕着以提高智力、能力和表现的信念展开。

“The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn and relearn,” argues Alvin Toffler, a writer, futurist, and businessman known for his works discussing modern technologies.

作家、未来学家和商人,以讨论现代科技著称的阿尔文 · 托夫勒说:“ 21世纪的文盲不是那些不会读写的人,而是那些不会学习、遗忘和不会再学习的人。”

Cultivating a growth or adaptable mindset can help you focus more on your most desirable goals in life. It may influence your motivation and could make you more readily able to see opportunities to learn and grow your abilities.The ability to keep an open-mind, acquire better knowledge and apply it when necessary can significantly improve your life and career.

培养一种成长或适应性的心态可以帮助你更加专注于你人生中最理想的目标,它可能会影响你的动机,让你更容易看到学习和提高能力的机会。
能够保持开放的心态,获得更好的知识,并在必要时应用它,可以显着改善你的生活和事业。

4. Super learners teach others what they know

4、超级学习者把他们知道的东西教给别人

According to research, learners retain approximately 90% of what they learn when they explain/teach the concept to someone else, or use it immediately.

根据研究,学习者在向别人解释 / 教授这个概念或者立即使用这个概念时,能够记住他们学到的大约90% 的东西。

Teaching others what you know is one of the most effective ways to learn, remember and recall new information. Psychologists, call it the “retri practice”. It’s one of the most reliable ways of building stronger memory traces.

教授别人你所知道的是学习、记忆和回忆新信息最有效的方法之一,心理学家称之为“回忆练习”,这是建立更强记忆痕迹最可靠的方法之一。

Learn by teaching someone else a topic in simple terms so you can quickly pinpoint the holes in your knowledge. It’s a mental model coined by the famous physicist Richard Feynman.

通过用简单的术语教授别人一个话题来学习,这样你就可以快速找出你知识中的漏洞,这是著名的物理学家理查德 · 费曼创造的心理模型。

(译注:大名鼎鼎的“ 费曼学习法”,知乎上的讨论认为这是世界上最强大的学习方法)



That means eating lots of foods associated with slowing cognitive decline — blueberries, vegetables (leafy greens — kale, spinach, broccoli), whole grains, getting protein from fish and legumes and choosing healthy unsaturated fats (olive oil) over saturated fats (butter).

这意味着要多吃与延缓认知能力下降有关的食物ーー蓝莓、蔬菜 ( 绿叶蔬菜ーー羽衣甘蓝、菠菜、花椰菜 ) 、全谷物、从鱼类和豆类中获取的蛋白质,选择健康的不饱和脂肪 ( 橄榄油) 而不是饱和脂肪 ( 黄油 ) 。

Fruit and vegetables combat age-related oxidative stress that causes wear and tear on brain cells,” says Dr Gary Small, a professor of psychiatry and ageing.

精神病学和衰老学教授加里 · 斯莫尔博士说:“ 水果和蔬菜可以对抗与年龄有关的氧化应激,这种应激反应会导致脑细胞的损耗。”

Our brains naturally decline if we do nothing to protect them. However, if you intervene early, you can slow the decline process — it’s easier to protect a healthy brain than to try to repair damage once it is extensive.

如果我们不采取保护措施,我们的大脑会自然衰退。
然而,如果及早干预,可以减缓这一衰退的过程——保护一个健康的大脑比试图修复一个大面积损伤的大脑更容易。

6. They take short breaks, early and often

6、超级学习者会尽早和经常地进行短暂的休息

Downtime is crucial to retaining anything you choose to learn. According to recent research, taking short breaks, early and often, can help you learn things better and even improve your retention rate.

休息对于保留你选择学习的任何东西都是至关重要的,根据最近的研究,尽早和经常地进行短暂的休息,可以帮助你更好地学习,甚至提高你的记忆力。

“Everyone thinks you need to ‘practice, practice, practice’ when learning something new. Instead, we found that resting, early and often, maybe just as critical to learning as practice,” said Leonardo G. Cohen, M.D., Ph.D., a senior investigator at NIH’s National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

美国国立卫生研究院全国神经紊乱和中风研究院健康中心的高级研究员莱昂纳多 · G · 科恩博士说:“ 每个人都认为在学习新东西时需要‘练习,练习,练习’,相反,我们发现尽早、经常地休息,可能对学习和实践同样重要。”

Better breaks help the brain solidify, memories during the rest periods. Whatever you choose to learn over time, it’s important to optimise the timing of rest intervals for better results.

更好的休息有助于大脑在休息期间巩固记忆,无论你选择学习什么,为了获得更好的结果,优化休息时间间隔是很重要的。

Experts at the Louisiana State University’s Center for Academic Success recommends 30–50 minutes sessions. “Anything less than 30 is just not enough, but anything more than 50 is too much information for your brain to take in at one time,” says learning strategies graduate assistant Ellen Dunn.

路易斯安那州立大学学术成就中心的专家建议每次学习时间为30-50分钟,学习策略研究生助理艾伦 · 邓恩说:“ 小于30分钟接受的信息不够,但是任何大于50分钟的信息对于你的大脑来说都太多了,大脑无法一次性接收。”

Our brains’ neural networks need to time process information, so spacing out your learning helps you memorise new information more efficiently — give your brain enough time to rest and recover.

我们的大脑神经网络需要时间来处理信息,所以间隔学习有助于你更有效地记忆新信息——让你的大脑有足够的时间休息并恢复。