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Results of a new epidemiological analysis of more than 108,000 women observed a lower risk of early menopause among women who had at least one pregnancy lasting at least six months and among those who had breastfed their infants. Further, risk was lowest among those who breastfed exclusively. The work is by first author and Ph.D. student Christine Langton, with her advisor Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson at the University of Massachusetts Amherst's School of Public Health and Health Sciences.

对108,000多名妇女进行的一项新的流行病学分析结果显示,至少有一次怀孕并持续了6个月的妇女和母乳喂养过婴儿的妇女提前绝经的风险较低。此外,纯母乳喂养者的风险最低。这项研究由第一作者、博士生克里斯汀·兰顿和她的导师、马萨诸塞大学阿默斯特公共卫生与健康科学学院的伊丽莎白 贝尔托内·约翰逊共同完成。



These two factors, pregnancy (parity) and breastfeeding, generally prevent ovulation and may slow the natural depletion of ovarian follicles over time, the authors point out. Thus pregnancy and breastfeeding are believed to lower the risk of early menopause, which is defined as the end of menstruation before age 45. Early menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline and osteoporosis. Details appear in the online open-access journal JAMA Network Open.
作者指出,这两个因素,妊娠(胎次)和母乳喂养,通常会阻止排卵,并可能随着时间的推移减缓卵泡的自然损耗。因此,怀孕和母乳喂养被认为可以降低更年期提前的风险,即在45岁之前月经结束的风险。更年期提前与心血管疾病、认知能力下降和骨质疏松症的风险增加有关。详情刊登在在线开放获取的期刊《JAMA Network Open》上。

Langton and colleagues suggest that while their results did not demonstrate a clear dose-response for breastfeeding, their findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a biological mechanism is influenced by longer breastfeeding. Also, findings from other studies support that optimal benefits from breastfeeding exclusively, for both mother and baby, reach a threshold between six and 12 months. Breastfeeding exclusively means that the baby receives no liquids or solid foods, only breast milk.

兰顿和他的同事们认为,虽然他们的研究结果并没有明确显示母乳喂养的剂量反应,但他们的发现与长期母乳喂养影响生物学机制的假设是一致的。此外,其他研究的结果也支持,对母亲和婴儿而言,纯母乳喂养的最佳益处在6个月至12个月之间达到一个阈值。纯母乳喂养是指婴儿不吃任何液体或固体食物,只喝母乳。



As Langton explains, "In our study, women with three or more pregnancies who breastfed exclusively for a total of 7 to 12 months had about a 32% lower risk of early menopause compared to women with the same number of children who breastfed exclusively for less than one month." Langton and colleagues also observed what they call other notable associations. Compared to women with no full-term pregnancies, women who had two pregnancies had a 16% lower risk of early menopause and women with three pregnancies saw a 22% lower risk.

正如兰顿所解释的那样:“在我们的研究中,有三次或三次以上怀孕的妇女,如果全部用母乳喂养7到12个月,她们的更年期提前的风险要比那些同样数量的孩子只用母乳喂养不到一个月的妇女低32%。” 兰顿和他的同事们还观察到了他们称之为“其他显著关联”的现象。与没有足月妊娠的女性相比,两次怀孕的女性提前绝经的风险降低了16%,三次怀孕的女性提前绝经的风险降低了22%。



For this work, Langton and colleagues conducted their prospective, population-based study within the on-going Nurses'' Health Study II cohort that began collecting data in 1989. They report that response rates were 85-90%. Parity, menopause status and age were measured at baseline and every two years, while breastfeeding factors were assessed three times during follow-up. Women in the study were followed until menopause or age 45, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, death, cancer diagnosis or loss to follow-up.

对于这项研究,兰顿和他的同事们在1989年开始收集数据,在正在进行的“护士健康研究II”群体中展开了基于人群的前瞻性研究。



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Materials provided by University of Massachusetts Amherst. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

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