原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ps5588.com 翻译:yzy86 转载请注明出处



With juicy meat and extra-crisp skin, Thanksgiving turkeys cooked in the manner of ducks are keeping Chinatown barbecue restaurants busy across the United States.

(副标题)以烹制鸭子的方法烹制出的感恩节火鸡有着多汁的肉和超级脆的皮,它让全美中国城的烧腊店来客盈门。

Roasted turkey hangs next to char siu in a barbecue case at New Yee Li in Dyker Heights, Brooklyn. New Yee Li is one of several shops and restaurant across the United States that offers Chinese barbecue-style turkey for Thanksgiving.

(图解:布鲁克林戴克高地的新裕利(New Yee Li)餐馆中,烧烤箱中挂在叉烧旁边的烤火鸡。新裕利是全美若干家提供中式烤感恩节火鸡的店家之一)

2019年11月18日

The three days leading up to Thanksgiving are manic at Kau Kau BBQ Market & Restaurant, a mainstay in Seattle’s Chinatown that specializes in Chinese barbecue. At least two extra cooks are brought on to help clean, brine, dry, baste and roast holiday turkeys 24 hours a day in the kitchen’s already packed ovens: crisp-skinned, five-spice-seasoned birds that Kau Kau makes according to the same process it uses for its roast duck.

感恩节之前的三天,巧巧海鲜烧腊饭店里简直忙疯了,这是西雅图中国城中一家专做中式烧腊的招牌馆子。至少额外引进了两名厨子,来帮忙清洗、腌制、晾干,刷汁,并在厨房里已经塞满的烤炉里24小时不间断地烧烤节日火鸡:巧巧制作的皮脆且五香风味的禽,和其烤鸭用的是同一套工序。



(图解:店主的祖先是夏威夷华人,巧巧这个名字大致可翻译为“很棒的食物”)

For that reason, said Richard Chang, who owns Kau Kau with his wife, Lynn Eng-Chang, the restaurant caps orders at about 80 turkeys per year.

与妻子张林恩(英)共同拥有巧巧餐馆的理查德·张说,因为这个原因,该餐馆每年能胜任的订单量为80只火鸡。

“We have to stop there, because we just cannot do any more,” he said.

“我们不得不止于这个数字,因为我们做不出更多的了”,他说。



Each place makes its own a little differently. But the main draw of a turkey roasted according to the lengthy procedures of professional Chinese barbecue is juicy, flavorful meat.

每个地方做出来的都略有不同。但这种烤火鸡主要的吸引力在于其多汁而味道丰富的鸡肉,依据的是中国专业烧腊的漫长程序。

“The American way can be dry,” Mr. Chang said. “The Chinese way is moist.”

“美式烤法会很干”,张先生说。“中式烤法则会很湿润。”

Rather than filling the turkey’s cavity with a bready stuffing to roast, Chinese barbecue cooks typically fill it many hours ahead with a wet, mushy marinade that may include toasted dry spices, onions, garlic, ginger and plenty of salt, then skewer the cavity shut.

和把面包状的填料填满火鸡的腔然后拿去烤不同,做中式烧腊的厨师通常会提前好几个小时,用湿哒哒的糊状腌汁填满它,里头的用料可以包括烤过的干辣椒、洋葱、大蒜、姜和足量的盐,然后用钎子把腔体串起来使其闭合。

The technique, known as “inside brining,” allows the meat to marinate while the turkey is hung up to dry out, typically by its neck — a necessary step so the skin will crisp well. The marinade also helps keep the meat moist while it roasts. (Unlike American-style dry-brined turkeys, in which a much drier salt-and-spice rub is applied to the exterior skin, this Chinese-style brine goes solely inside the cavity.)

这种技术称为“体内腌制”,能让肉在这只火鸡挂起来晾干时得到腌渍,通常是勾在脖子上挂起来,这是必须的一步,这样鸡皮就会很脆。腌渍也有助于在烧烤过程中保持肉的多汁。(这就和美式干腌火鸡不同,后者是在外皮上磨搓上一层干得多的盐和香辛料,这种中式卤水只会进入火鸡腔内。)



(图解:艾瑞克(左)和西门(右)兄弟俩,他们说感恩节是他们一年中最忙碌的时段)

It’s a process that has been refined over the years at Hing Lung, a Cantonese barbecue shop in San Francisco’s Chinatown that is owned by the brothers Eric and Simon Cheung. Their father began working at the shop in the 1980s, learning to become a si fu, or master, of barbecue. He passed that knowledge on to his sons, although the brothers have made slight tweaks to the classic recipes. That includes the shop’s Thanksgiving turkey, which dates back to the time before their father joined the business.

这是兴隆小馆一直在改良的一道工序,它是艾瑞克·张和西门·张兄弟俩开在旧金山中国城里的一家广式烧腊店。他们的父亲八十年代开始在这家店里工作,学习如何成为一名烧腊大师傅。他把这方面的知识传给了他的儿子们,虽然这两兄弟已经对经典食谱做了一点小调整。这也包括这家店的感恩节火鸡,可以追溯到他们的父亲干起这一行之前的时代。

For their in-demand turkey, the Cheungs apply a dry rub of Chinese spices like star anise and licorice to the cavity, then fill it with a mixture of onions, garlic and celery. The turkeys, like ducks, are then skewered up to close the cavity, scalded with hot water to tighten the skin and clean off any seasoning mixture, coated in vinegar, and hung to dry for 12 hours. There has been much trial and error over the years; turkeys have fallen off their hooks because they were too heavy, and had to be tossed. But the brothers have gotten a handle on the larger bird.

张氏兄弟会给他们广受欢迎的火鸡作腔内的干腌磨搓,用的是诸如八角和甘草的材料,然后再填入洋葱、大蒜和芹菜的混合物。这些火鸡就和鸭子一样,会在之后被串起,好让腔体闭合,用滚烫的水作焯水处理,以让皮肤紧致,并洗去覆盖在醋上的所有调味用混合物,然后挂起晾12个小时。多年来,一直都会作很多实验,也会出很多错;火鸡因为太重,从钩子上掉下来过,然后就不得不扔掉。但兄弟俩已经能够驾驭更大的禽类。



(图解:兴隆小馆中的赵先生正在给火鸡的颈腔调味,这有助于给胸部调味;他还会在挂起晾几个小时之前,用醋浇透火鸡,根据烧腊师傅的说法,醋能帮助皮肤均匀地变成褐色,并获得光泽)

To further set themselves apart from other Chinese barbecue restaurants in the area, Eric Cheung created a Southern-style cream gravy to go with their turkey, using the necks, gizzards and liver — a twist he said was inspired by his fondness for chicken-fried steak at places like IHOP.

为了使他们进一步区别于那个地区其他的中国烧腊餐馆,艾瑞克·张还创造出了一款南方风格的奶油肉汁,以搭配他们家的火鸡,里头用上了脖子、鸡胗和鸡肝,他说,这一意料之外的进展,灵感来自于他在一些类似IHOP地方爱吃的炸鸡排。

(译注:IHOP是一家美国煎饼屋连锁餐厅,专门提供早餐)



While many Chinese-American households choose not to bother with turkey, in some cases it can’t be avoided. About 30 years ago, Chinese-Americans in Chicago started going to Sun Wah BBQ with raw turkeys they had received from their employers as Thanksgiving gifts. Many were totally unaccustomed to using their ovens, let alone for such a large bird, so they asked the restaurant for help. (Ovens are not a typical feature of home kitchens in China, and most Chinese home cooking occurs on the stovetop.)

虽然很多美国华人家庭会选择不为火鸡费心,但在某些情况下这是躲不开的。大约30年前,芝加哥的美国华人开始带着生的火鸡去新华烧烤餐厅,这是他们从自己老板那儿收到的感恩节礼物。有很多人完全不习惯使用烤炉,更不用说是要烤这么大一只禽,所以他们向这家餐厅寻求了帮助。(在中国,烤箱并不是家庭厨房的标配,而且大部分的中国家庭烹饪是发生在炉灶上的。)

“Asians in general don’t really know how to cook turkey,” said Kelly Cheng, whose family owns Sun Wah. “That’s just not something we generally eat.”

“一般而言,亚洲人并不太清楚该如何烹制火鸡”,凯丽·程说,她家是新华餐厅的主人。“那根本不是我们通常会去吃的东西。”

But at Sun Wah, the professional kitchen and ovens were there. The poultry-roasting wisdom was there. All that had to be swapped in was the type of bird. That, said Ms. Cheng, is what got the restaurant roasting turkeys.

但在新华餐厅,还是有专业的厨房和烤炉的。也具备烤制家禽的智慧。唯一需要调换的只有禽的种类。程女士说,而正是那一点,让这家餐厅烤起了火鸡。

Today, the restaurant handles about 120 turkey orders for Thanksgiving. Ms. Cheng, a second-generation member of the business, admitted that it has become a “logistical nightmare,” but said her family loves doing it for their loyal customers.

今天,这家餐厅要应付120只感恩节火鸡的订单。程女士承认,这种情况已经变成了“后勤的噩梦”,她是这门生意的第二代成员,但她说,她的家人很喜欢为他们那些忠诚的顾客做这件事。

Their recipe has also gradually changed to adapt to the oversize bird. They started out with a standard five-spice seasoning based on their roast duck, but found it wasn’t enough to flavor whole turkeys, which have a much higher ratio of meat to skin and bone. They added ginger and cilantro to the inside-brine mixture, and boosted the overall seasoning so it was stronger.

为了适应这种体型过大的禽类,她们的食谱也已经逐渐发生了改变。一开始,她们用的是标准的五香风味,这是以她们的烤鸭为基础的,但发现要给整只火鸡调味这些还不够,火鸡的肉,和皮以及骨头的比率要高得多。她们在用作体内腌制的混合物中加入了生姜和香菜,并提升了整体的调味强度,所以味道会重一些。

While Ms. Cheng’s brother, Michael Cheng, runs the barbecue operations, she said that the whole family enjoys arguing over how to improve it.

虽然这家烧烤店是程女士的兄弟,迈克尔·程在运营,她说,她们家所有人都喜欢争论如何对烤火鸡加以改善。



For other Chinese-American households, though, the fear of missing out on a national pastime can be a strong motivator. Often, turkey comes at the instigation of the American-raised generation of the family, who grew up learning about Thanksgiving in school, over crafts like hand tracings drawn to resemble turkeys.

但是对于其他美国华人家庭来说,害怕错过一项全国性娱乐活动也可以是强大的动力。火鸡常常是靠着家庭中在美国长大那代人的撺掇才出现的,他们是在学校里学着感恩节长大的,还会在工艺品上手绘出很像火鸡的东西。

“It’s such an ingrained part of American culture that we wanted to bring home, but to my parents, it was still completely foreign to them,” said Andrew Shiue, the Chinese-American writer behind the blog Beyond Chinatown. “We wanted to take part in this American tradition.”

“这是美国文化中根深蒂固的一部分,我们想把它带回家,但对我的父母来说,这仍然是彻头彻尾的外国事物”,安德鲁·薛说,他是博客“城里城外”背后的美国华人作家。“我们想参与到这个美国传统中来。”

Wilson Tang, the owner of Nom Wah Tea Parlor in Manhattan’s Chinatown, said his family dabbled in roasting turkey at home when he was growing up, with results that were “hit or miss.”

威尔森·唐是曼哈顿中国城里南华茶室的老板,他说,在他的成长过程中,他的家人对于在家烤火鸡也有所涉猎,至于结果那是“不论成败”的。

Yee Li, on nearby Bayard Street, became his family’s go-to source. The meat was moister than American-style turkey, Mr. Tang said, and the shop would also carve the turkey in neat pieces, just like a roast duck or soy-sauce chicken.

位于摆也街附近的裕利,成了他家人的重要去处。那里的肉比美国风火鸡的肉要多汁,唐先生说,而且这家店也会把火鸡整齐地切成块,就像烤鸭或是酱油鸡的切法。



(图解:新裕利是在曼哈顿开了几十个年头的裕利衍生出来的,希望能吸引到寻找老派中国城口味的新顾客)

Although Yee Li closed this year after more than 30 years on Bayard Street, John Chan, a scion of the family that had owned the shop, opened New Yee Li in January in Dyker Heights, Brooklyn, filling a niche for classic Cantonese roast meats and other specialties in an area with a growing population of Chinese immigrants.

虽然在摆也街开了三十多年后的裕利会在今年关张,这个家庭的传人约翰·陈已经成为了这家店的老板,他一月时在布鲁克林的戴克高地开了一家新裕利,在一个中国移民人口不断增多的地区内,填补了经典的广式烤肉和其他特色菜这个专营市场。

Mr. Chan said that when he was young, he tried to avoid working at his family’s restaurant on Thanksgiving because it was so busy with customers picking up their turkeys. Now he is looking forward to continuing the turkey tradition at his new location — though, he acknowledged, it’s not his favorite dish.

陈先生说,在他还年轻的时候,他会尽量避免在感恩节去他家的餐馆里工作,因为顾客们都会忙着去领取他们的火鸡。现在,他期待着在他的新址延续这种烤火鸡的传统,虽然他也承认,这不是他最喜欢的菜。

“I don’t actually prefer it over my Italian neighbors’ turkey,” Mr. Chan said. “I like how they do turkey, and they tell me they like my turkey.”

“实际上,相比我那意大利裔邻居做的火鸡,我并不偏爱我家的”,陈先生说。“我喜欢他们料理火鸡的方法,而他们告诉我,他们喜欢我家的火鸡。”