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Assam NRC: What next for 1.9 million 'stateless' Indians?

阿萨姆国家公民登记册:190万“无国籍”印度人接下来会怎么样?



India has published the final version of a list which effectively strips about 1。9 million people in the north-eastern state of Assam of their citizenship。

印度公布了一份最终版本的名单,有效地剥夺了东北部阿萨姆邦约190万人的公民身份。

The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is a list of people who can prove they came to the state by 24 March 1971, the day before neighbouring Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan。

国家公民登记册(NRC)是一份可以证明公民是在1971年3月24日前(邻国孟加拉国宣布脱离巴基斯坦独立的前一天)来到该地区的名单。

People left off the list will have 120 days to appeal against their exclusion.

被排除在名单之外的人将有120天的时间上诉。


It is unclear what happens next。

不清楚接下来会发生什么。



The register has been upxed for the first time。

这是该登记册的第一次更新。



Families in the state have been required to provide documentation to show their lineage, with those who cannot prove their citizenship deemed illegal foreigners。
Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has long railed against illegal immigration in India but has made the NRC a priority in recent years。

阿萨姆邦的家庭被要求提供证明其血统的文件,那些不能证明其公民身份的家庭被视为非法外国人。

印度总理纳伦德拉·莫迪的印度教民族主义者印度人民党(BJP)长期以来一直反对印度的非法移民,并且近年来已将NRC列为优先事项。

An anxious wait

焦急的等待

By Rajini Vaidyanathan, BBC News, Assam

作者:Rajini Vaidyananathan,BBC新闻,阿萨姆邦

A small community centre in the village of Katajhar is being guarded by two members of the Indian army。 Outside, a line of people wait。 Some are clutching plastic bags containing documents。

卡塔哈尔村的一个小社区中心正由两名印度军队成员看守。外面,一排人在等着。有些人抓着装有文件的塑料袋。

As they enter one of two rooms, an official runs his eyes down a print-out to see if their names or photos are on it. This list - the National Register of Citizens - is one with huge consequences. And so there's fear and trepidation as people here find out whether they've been included.

当他们进入两个房间中的一个时,一位官员将目光投向一张打印纸,看上面是否有他们的名字或照片。这份名单——全国公民登记册——是一份后果巨大的名单。所以这里的人们在确认自己 是否被包括进来前,会有担忧和恐惧。

Many here who haven't made it tell me it's a mistake as they show me paperwork they say proves they belong in this country.

很多还没有成功的人告诉我这是一个错误,他们给我看证明他们属于这个国家的文件。

None of Asia Khatun's family of nine made the list. They now have the chance to appeal but there's real fear about what might come next. "I'd rather die than go to a detention centre," she tells me. People here are angry but they're also scared.

Asia Khatun 家的九口人没有一个进入了公民名单。他们现在还有机会上诉,但真正担心的是接下来会发生什么。
”我宁愿死也不愿去拘留中心,”她告诉我。这里的人很生气,但他们也很害怕。



If people lose their appeals in higher courts, they could be detained indefinitely.
Some 1,000 people declared as foreigners earlier are already lodged in six detention centres located in prisons. Mr Modi's government is also building an exclusive detention centre, which can hold 3,000 detainees.

如果人们在高等法院上诉失败,他们可能会被无限期拘留。

之前被宣布为外国人的约1000人已经被关押在监狱的6个拘留中心。莫迪先生的政府还建立了一个专门的拘留中心,可以容纳3000名拘留者。

"People whose names are not on the final list are really anxious about what lies ahead。 One of the reasons is that the Foreigners Tribunal does not have a good reputation, and many people are worried that they will have to go through this process," Sangeeta Barooah Pisharoty, author of Assam: The Accord, The Discord, told the BBC。

《The Accord, The Discord》的作者Sangeeta Barooah Pisharoty告诉BBC记者:“名字不在最终名单上的人真的很担心未来会发生什么。其中一个原因是,外国法庭没有良好的声誉,许多人担心他们将不得不经历这一过程”

Why have been the courts so controversial?

为什么法院如此有争议?

The special courts were first set up in 1964, and since then they have declared more than 100,000 people foreigners. They regularly identify "doubtful voters" or "illegal infiltrators" as foreigners to be deported.

这个特别法庭最早成立于1964年,从那时起,他们已经宣布10万多人是外国人。他们经常把“可疑选民”或“非法渗透者”认定为外国人,然后将其驱逐出境。

But the workings of the specially formed Foreigners Tribunals, which have been hearing the contested cases, have been mired in controversy.
There are more than 200 such courts in Assam today, and their numbers are expected to go up to 1,000 by October. The majority of these tribunals were set up after the BJP came to power in 2014.

专门成立的外国法庭,他们一直在审理有争议的案件,深陷争议之中。

今天的阿萨姆邦有200多个这样的法庭,预计到10月,这些法庭的数量将达到1000个。大多数法庭是在人民党2014年执政后成立的。

The courts have been accused of bias and their workings have often been opaque and riddled with inconsistencies.

法院被指控有偏见,他们的工作经常是不透明的,充满了矛盾。

For one thing, the burden of proof is on the accused or the alleged foreigner.

首先,举证责任由被告或被指控的外国人承担。

For another, many families are unable to produce documents due to poor record-keeping, illiteracy or because they lack the money to file a legal claim。

另一方面,许多家庭由于记录不好、文盲或缺乏资金提起法律诉讼而无法出示文件。

People have been declared foreigners by the courts because of differences in spellings of names or ages in voter rolls, and problems in getting identity documents certified by authorities. Amnesty International has described the work by the special courts as "shoddy and lackadaisical".

由于选民名单中姓名拼写不同或年龄不同,以及在获得当局认证的身份证件方面存在问题,法院已经宣布这些人是外国人。国际特赦组织(Amnesty International)将特别法庭的这项工作描述为“粗制滥造、毫无新意”。

Journalist Rohini Mohan analysed more than 500 judgements by these courtsin one district and found 82% of the people on trial had been declared foreigners. She also found more Muslims had been declared foreigners, and 78% of the orders were delivered without the accused being ever heard - the police said they were "absconding", but Mohan found many of them living in their villages and unaware they had been declared foreigners.

记者Rohini Mohan分析了一个地区500多个法院的判决,发现82%的受审人被宣布为外国人。
她还发现,更多的穆斯林被宣布为外国人,78%的命令是在没有被告人到庭的情况下下达的——警方说他们“潜逃”,
但记者发现他们中的许多人生活在自己的村庄里,并且不知道他们被宣布为外国人。

"The Foreigners Tribunal," she says, "must be made more transparent and accountable."

她说:“外国法庭必须变得更加透明和负责。”


A decorated Indian army veteran, Mohammed Sanaullah spent 11 days in a detention camp in June after being declared a "foreigner", prompting national outrage.

Mohammed Sanaullah 是一名有勋章的印度陆军老兵,今年6月被宣布为“外国人”后,他在拘留营呆了11天,引发了全国的愤怒。


Both the citizen's register and the tribunals have also sparked fears of a witch hunt against Assam's ethnic minorities.

公民登记册和法庭也引发了对阿萨姆邦少数民族被迫害的担忧。

Have the minorities been targeted?

少数民族是否成为攻击目标?

Many say the list has nothing to do with religion, but activists see it as targeting the state's Bengali community, a large portion of whom are Muslims.

许多人说,这份名单与宗教没有任何关系,但活动人士认为,它的目标是该地区的孟加拉社区,其中很大一部分是穆斯林。


They also point to the plight of Rohingya Muslims in neighbouring Bangladesh.

他们还指出了邻国孟加拉国Rohingya穆斯林的困境。



Human rights activist Harsh Mander, who visited two detention centres, has spoken about a situation of "grave and extensive human distress and suffering".

rq活动家Harsh Mander访问了两个拘留中心,他谈到了一个“严重和广泛的人类痛苦和苦难”的局面。

What happens to people who are declared foreigners?

被宣布为外国人的人会怎么样?

The BJP which rules the state, has insisted in the past that illegal Muslim immigrants will be deported. But neighbouring Bangladesh will definitely not accede to such a request.

统治国家的人民党过去一直坚持要将非法穆斯林移民驱逐出境。但是邻国孟加拉国绝对不会同意这样的要求。


Many believe that India will end up creating the newest cohort of stateless people, raising the spectre of a homegrown crisis that will echo that of the Rohingya people who fled Myanmar for Bangladesh.

统治国家的人民党过去一直坚持要将非法穆斯林移民驱逐出境。但是邻国孟加拉国绝对不会同意这样的要求。


It is not clear whether the people stripped of their Indian citizenship will be able to access welfare or own property.

目前尚不清楚被剥夺印度公民身份的人是否能够获得福利或拥有财产。


One possibility is that once they are released, they will be given work permits with some basic rights, but will not be allowed to vote.

一种可能是,一旦他们被释放,他们将获得一些基本权利的工作许可证,但不允许投票。